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BIO 582 - Human Anatomy and Physiology: Home

Tips for Success


  • Know how to spell your scientific concepts correctly
  • Know alternative names/spellings 
  • In the sciences, you are not so much concerned with a thesis; your main focus is to explain aspects clearly.
  • Start Early. Proper research takes time.  
  • The better your research, the easier writing the paper will be.  




I found this guide:

Human Anatomy

The Assignment

Excerpted from the handout "The Pathology Investigation" found on your CANVAS course page for Biology 582: Anatomy and Physiology.

Assignment Timeline:

Paper topic due Dec. 3-7

            Should be a paragraph explaining the proposed topic, including the general topic (the normal system and the pathology/disorder you are focusing on), as well as any ideas you have about your specific angle on the topic.


Proposal due Dec. 10-14

            In the proposal, you should present:

  1. The topic that you’re investigating
  2. Your best guess at the specific angle you are using in studying it.  What question are you trying to answer? What is your hypothesis/claim/thing you want to resolve? 
  3. 5 citations of relevant articles that you can use in your research.
    1. References for 5 articles that are directly relevant to your project.  You may need to read titles and abstracts for many more to find the best ones.  Make sure the articles are both truly on the topic and at a level suited to your project and knowledge.  You don’t want to be hopelessly lost after the second sentence, but you also don’t want to be at the popular press level all the time either.
    2. Write complete references for these (use APA format for all references) and in a sentence or two explain how each article will support your topic/thesis.  If you find articles on the Web, evaluate them carefully to determine the author and his/her credentials.  There are lots of sites with 6th hand medical advice and information out there (these are not the references you are looking for).  Reference URLs carefully and with complete documentation.


Brief Outline with sources due Jan. 7-11

            For the brief outline, you should be able to envision the broad structure of your paper.  Start an outline (skeletal) including major points you want to include, in a logical order – showing that you know how you’re going to use information to build towards the argument you’re making.  Include in-text citations (author’s last name, year) – example (Johnson, 2007) - in the appropriate places so that they will be there as you build around and fill in your outline.  PLEASE USE A LITERATURE CITED FORMAT RATHER THAN FOOTNOTES and then include a complete list of all references at the end in alphabetical order by author’s last name.


Detailed outline due Jan. 28 - Feb. 1

            Continue filling in your outline with lots of details and specifics.  Make sure that you include citations as you use the information (in parentheses in text) and be very careful to avoid unintended plagiarism.  The best way to avoid this is to 1. Never copy/paste any text from a source! 2. Always write the information in your own words right from the beginning.  Also include a bibliography (in alphabetical order by author’s last name, in your chosen common format).


Final paper due Feb. 11-15

            This submission should represent your best effort at researching and arguing for a specific position regarding something pathology-related.  Final project – 5-7 pages, very focused, well-organized, well-written, edited, and cited.  1.5 spacing, 11pt font, 1inch margins.


Writing Guidelines: (common themes that can help you write better)

First person: often more engaging, easier to follow academic integrity guidelines clearly

Interpretation/personal hypothesis: what do you contribute to this paper intellectually?  After accumulating other peoples’ intellectual work, how do you use that as a starting point to add your own thoughts to this topic?

Target audience: non-expert with general education

Figures can be worth a thousand words!

Adjectives and short descriptive phrases are tremendously useful in helping to remind a reader of a complex argument using technical terms.  Ex., when describing a specific pathway instead of just saying, “protein A catalyzes a reaction where precursor B is cleaved into products C and D”, instead write “the stress-activated protein A catalyzes a reaction where inactive precursor B is cleaved into products C and D, which function respectively to stimulate energy metabolism and increase hunger; in this way, the use of energy and desire to get more by eating is regulated by stress via the molecular mechanism of protein A” .  You may do a great job of introducing this pathway in one paragraph, or each individual protein player, but a page or two later your reader will have forgotten those details.  So, for the rest of the paper keep referring to things with a short adjective to help prompt your reader’s memory of each key function (in this example, forevermore always refer to product C as “metabolism-activating C” or similar).

Academic Integrity: 

            Maintaining academic integrity is incredibly important for this project.  Therefore:

A)  The work done for these projects will be your own.  If you receive assistance from other people (parents, other family, students) you will consult with Mr. Robinson about those sources and cite them appropriately. 

B)  The writing in your paper is your own.  You will not plagiarize from any sources.  You may receive editing help from colleagues/faculty and/or the writing center. If you did receive editing help, you will state the name of the editor(s) that helped you.   

C)   Where you chose to quote your sources, you will use quotations properly and cite the source of your quotation appropriately.  However, before you do a lot of quoting, you should probably consult with us for some guidance. 

D)   You will cite your sources accurately (using parenthetical citations and APA style) and list all of your sources in the bibliography. 

E)  You will go back and review the Academic Integrity policy (under the Academic Expectations & Policies section of the Blue Book).

F) You will consult with me if you have any questions or concerns about these rules, and if you have any questions about how or when to cite.  If you have any doubts, ASK!.

G) Failure to follow these rules may result in disciplinary action 

Instructional Librarian