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PHY440 - Astronomy: Citations

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When to Use Citations

You must use citations when:

  • You use a direct quote from a resource.
  • You paraphrase a sentence or paragraph from a source.
  • You use an IDEA from a source that is not common knowledge.

When in doubt, cite it!

Quoting vs. Paraphrasing

Mendeley - A smart way to deal with your research materials

If you are planning on working in the sciences and doing research throughout your career, let me recommend you start using Mendeley as a bibliographic control software. An account created today can be carried with you once you graduate from Andover. It is one of the 'chosen' software programs for scientific information control. Just image a scenario where you have dozens of pdf articles and you can search these while you are writing your paper! See the science liaison at the OWHL for more details. 

Save time with a Citation generator

The joy of finding footnotes and bibliographic entries that lead to the perfect original source can only happen when scholars carefully track their sources and generate citations in an appropriate style. Neglecting to track your sources as you move through the research process will cost you HOURS of precious time. 

Try this excellent tool: (click the image below)

Noodletools will not only help you create your footnotes and bibliography, it also will help you stay organized.  When you create a project, you have the ability to record, link, and track your sources, attach notecards, make an outline, export a bibliography, and copy/paste footnotes into your paper.  You also may share your project with your teacher and/or classmates. 

For history assignments, you should use Chicago Style bibliography and footnotes, and choose the "advanced" option to get the most types of citation forms. 

Citation Forms - MLA

When writing this paper, you will be using the MLA format.  MLA uses parenthetical references (instead of footnotes).

Knight Cite citation generator

Why Use Mendeley?

Mendeley iconUsing Mendeley allows quick access to your research as you find, analyze, review, use, cite, and store your research findings. Mendeley is a very sophisticated software that integrates with the Internet. An account created in Mendeley can be accessed from ANY device if your primary device is lost, stolen, or breaks. The Mendeley community, primarily a scientific cohort, also shares materials within the community and supports each other when questions arise. This community is a great foundation for early budding scientists. 

Below I have placed two images of Mendeley. The left one is the 'desktop client' and the right one is the 'web access client'. Once an account is created, these two work environments are continuously synchronized with one another so that your research is always up-to-date and available! If you have any questions about this software, see the science library liaison in the OWHL. 

Mendeley desktop clientMendeley web access