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PHY100 - Introduction to Physics: Citations

An OWHLGuide created to help PHY100 students complete their research on time.

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When to Use Citations

You must use citations when:

  • You use a direct quote from a resource.
  • You paraphrase a sentence or paragraph from a source.
  • You use an IDEA from a source that is not common knowledge.

When in doubt, cite it!

Citation Style Sheets

The American Psychological Association (APA), the Council of Biological Editors (CBE), and the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation styles are the most popular used in the Biology classes at Phillips Academy Andover. There are many citation styles available. Talk with you teacher to make sure you are using the right citation style for your paper and project. 

The Noodletools software allows for project creation using APA and MLA. If you are required to use other styles, try using Mendeley or Zotero, software programs used primarily in the sciences.


Quoting vs. Paraphrasing

Always give credit for others thoughts and writings. "Think of quotation marks as a hug, keeping someone else’s words safe in what you’re writing." Sarah Grassin

Save time with a Citation generator

The joy of finding footnotes and bibliographic entries that lead to the perfect original source can only happen when scholars carefully track their sources and generate citations in an appropriate style. Neglecting to track your sources as you move through the research process will cost you HOURS of precious time. 

Try this excellent tool: (click the image below)

Noodletools will not only help you create your footnotes and bibliography, it also will help you stay organized.  When you create a project, you have the ability to record, link, and track your sources, attach notecards, make an outline, export a bibliography, and copy/paste footnotes into your paper.  You also may share your project with your teacher and/or classmates. 

For history assignments, you should use Chicago Style bibliography and footnotes, and choose the "advanced" option to get the most types of citation forms.  If you have any questions about citations, please chat with a librarian using OWHL Answers.  We are here to help!

Mendeley - A smart way to deal with your research materials

If you are planning on working in the sciences and doing research throughout your career, I recommend you start using Mendeley as a bibliographic control software. An account created today can be carried with you once you graduate from Andover. It is one of the 'chosen' software programs for scientific information control. Just image a scenario where you have dozens of pdf articles and you can search these while you are writing your paper! See the science liaison at the OWHL for more details.